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(THE TECHNIQUE of  A. A. Fedyakov)
Definition of the importance of inventions is made on economic benefit of its use or on technical (or on other positive) effect. In economic activities people, as a rule, estimate result of the efforts on an end result parity (the sum of the created consumer costs) to the sum of the expenses made for achievement of result that expresses essence of labor productivity.
Let's consider influence of use of inventions on labor productivity increase on the schedule (fig. 1),


П - consumer costs; З - expenses;
Па- consumer costs of replaced object;
За - expenses for maintenance of consumer costs of replaced object;
Па = const — a place of the points designating objects with equal consumer properties (costs), which are received by various ways with various volumes of expenses;
За = const — a place of the points designating objects with various on volume by consumer properties, received at equal expenses;
П/З = const — a line of equal labor productivity at creation of objects of various volumes of the consumer costs created as a







Expenses are understood as all sum of expenses of current and last work. Under consumer properties in given article are considered the properties of object shown at manufacturing and operation (including repair), instead of properties of object of the invention and properties of production of the enterprise of the supplier of a making part of a product .
The matter is that improvement of a separate part of a product in general cannot bring improvement in consumer properties of a final product, or the increase in expenses at use of the invention won't justify increase in consumer properties of a product. For example: for automatic line acquisition highly specialized machine tools with the coordinated productivity and cost have been ordered. One of suppliers has put the machine tool, in which worked the invention that has allowed to raise productivity in 2 times. Machine tool cost has thus increased on 20 %. But productivity of a line remained former, and expenses for improvement were vain. If to estimate only machine tool characteristics too the decision can be estimated as correct.
In practice there are the decisions, different in volume of consumer costs at equal expenses or only expenses at stability of created consumer costs. But the primary majority of decisions differs on both indicators. Unfortunately, only achievement of one effect is paid to the author or the patent owner as a rule. Such position equates decisions of sectors 1, 2 and 3 (fig. 1) in case improvement only technical characteristics is considered. Though these decisions are far not equivalent. The decisions which indicators settle down above line ОА, have positive economic benefit in relation to other decisions. In the light of the specified the requirement inaccuracy in that the decisions reducing quality of production (sector 6 fig. 1 see), not to recognize as rationalization is visible.
Certainly, realization of such decision in the goods with smaller volume of consumer costs should be accompanied by an establishment of the smaller price for the new goods. And here's the deal with sector 3 become comprehensible only in the presence of limiting factors (the defensive equipment  and materials, limits of time and resources). Same concerns decisions of sectors 4 and 5.
Value of the invention is defined by economy of expenses and increase in consumer costs. In indicators weeding value of inventions can be expressed the formula: Ц1 = (± ΔЗ ±ΔП) х And (1),where:













П - change of consumer properties in relation to base object;
З - change of expenses in relation to base object;
A-volume (quantity) of production (products) made with use of the invention.
For development of uniform numerical criterion of value of inventions it is necessary expense and consumer properties to express in one units. It is offered to express them in units of value. Thus expenses are defined nowadays existing (or specified) ways.

To define changes of consumer properties in cost expression  allow  the methods developed in qualimetry and in the theory of the is functional-cost analysis (FCA) (1), in the following sequence :
- Consumer properties (function) of a product are accepted equal to unit;
- The commission of experts defines the importance of each separate property (function) as parts of the whole;
- Mathematical processing of statements of experts defines value of each function (property) as parts whole (FСА);

- Knowing, at the expense of invention use this or that function (consumer property) how much changes, change of consumer properties in cost expression is defined by product of the cost price of a base product on increase in consumer properties (from a condition of proportionality of expenses).
The way of construction of dependences of sizes of expenses from level of consumer properties can be other possible variant of expression of consumer properties in cost expression. (1, p. 22-26). 

Procedures of expression of consumer properties in cost indexes will cause in the beginning difficulties, but in process of expansion of  FСА application, appointment of the prices proportional to consumer properties, improvements of the relation to improvement of quality of the goods, become an everyday occurrence.
Introduction of  FСА procedures in definition of value of inventions will promote the prompt mass application of  FCA, what is the best  method of search of reserves in designs and technologies for today.
Let's consider two examples of results of invention uses. Invention use has allowed to increase a technical resource of the hydrocar since 2,5 years till 5 years. The resulted expenses before invention use on 1 hydrocar made 200 roubles, and after invention use - 225 roubles. Release of cars makes 1000 pieces in a year. The economic benefit calculated by the operating technique, makes 175000 roubles. We will construct a field of estimations (the Fig. 2 see):
The increase in a technical resource in 2 times designates increase in consumer qualities in 2 times. Having carried out construction of a characteristic point, and then transfer of increase in consumer properties in an equivalent of change of expenses (see lines with arrows ) under the formula 1 we define the importance of the invention:
Ц1 = (200-225 + 400 - 200) х A = (- 25 + 200) х 1000 = 175.000 roubles.
Example 2. The invention has raised privacy of the lock in 10 times. Expenses for manufacture of the lock before invention use made 5 roubles. Lock expenses in which the invention is worked, have made 8 roubles. Release of locks makes 2.000.000 pieces in a year.
By processing of expert estimations it is established:
- The importance of function of privacy makes 0,2. Its increase in 10 times is equivalent to increase in consumer properties of function of privacy of the lock to 2.0. Thus, consumer properties of the new lock will make 0,8 +2,0 =2,8. We build a field of estimations of value of the invention (the Fig. 3 see).


Ц1 = (5-8 +14-5) х2.000.000 = 12.000.000 roubles.
The offered technique of definition of value of the invention reflects public value of the invention more full, allows to define more precisely results of work of the author and the persons promoting use of the invention, and on this basis it is more fair to pay work of these people.












The used literature:
1. H. Ebers, K .Tomos «the Analysis of expenses on the basis of consumer cost», M, Economy, 1975г.

                                                                              A. A. Fedyakov
© Fedyakov A.A.  Email: afed@itnet33.ru
The priority is fixed by making notarized the certified copy.